How may a classroom activity be adapted for students at various stages of language acquisition? Address evidence of student comprehension and assessment methods.
Many of the techniques that improve outcomes for ELL’s are also good techniques overall. Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2008) take Cambourne’s “Conditions of Learning” and apply them to the ELL friendly classroom. These eight conditions are immersion, demonstration, engagement, expectation, responsibility, employment, approximation, and response (Echevarria et al., 2008, p. 24). I will briefly describe their application below:
1. Immersion – Constantly use all aspects of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to practice English language and content concepts.
2. Demonstration – Show students the core learning in practice and have them model those concepts as well.
3. Engagement – Create a safe environment, emphasize the relevance of the material, and teach it at appropriately challenging levels of difficulty.
4. Expectation – Hold appropriate but high levels of expectation for all students. Look past language challenges to the full capabilities of each student.
5. Responsibility – Give students choices, encourage reflection, hold students to high standards of independent performance, and encourage critical thinking.
6. Employment – Allow students to demonstrate the skills and concepts they have learned. Explain real world context and value of the concepts being learned.
7. Approximation – Encourage and reward risk taking. Embrace “approximately correct” answers as stepping-stones to completely right answers.
8. Response – Allow for continual constructive and focused feedback from multiple sources, including peers (Echevarria et al., 2008, p. 23).
All of these eight principles do double duty. Not only do they promote powerful learning in ELL’s (and other students), they create better opportunities for assessment. By recasting learning tasks away from passive into active learning, students’ proficiencies and weaknesses are more clearly observable and more easily remediated.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP Model (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.